French Colonization of Morocco and its Impacts
French colonization in Morocco had begun after signing “the treaty of Spain and French protectorate on Morocco” from 1912 till 1956. Nearly 44 years of colonization. France imposes its language as the main tool of communication besides Arabic in the local country in order to achieve its aims through building relationships with Moroccan people. So, imposing the French language is the first manifestation of the impact of this colonization.
What is important here is that even Morocco got independence in 1956; the effects of colonization still nowadays. This is so clear in the French language, which became the main language besides Arabic. It is used in the government, institution, schools. Some people use it in their daily communication. French colonisation is not only economically and politically exploitation, but it goes far in spreading its ideologies and culture as Pennycook said: "It is useful, therefore to view colonialism as about far more than just economic and political exploitation, it was also a massive movement that both produced and in turn was produced by colonial culters and ideologies"( Pennycook 2001, P21). Moreover, French colonization changed Moroccan’s lifestyle & introduced a new set of values. French was established as superior. While Arabic and Berber as inferior. The supremacy was part of the broader ideology of the French colonization. Hence, Arabic still just the language of traditions, authenticity, religion. While, French is the language of government, policy, education, economic. "In 1912 the French colonial authorities in Morocco introduced the French language to the country making it the language of government and media, therefore classical Arabic was only used for traditional activities"(Rouchdy 2002,p21). Rouchdy added that “within Morocco, French is the vehicle of science, technology, and modern culture”. This is due to the French colonialism. So, French is one of the prestigious languages of Morocco.
The problem is that even Morocco became independent from 1956 till nowadays, nearly 65 years of independence; it can not dispose of the remains of colonization especially its language. So, the question that imposes itself here is that: Why Morocco can not dispose of the language of colonization till nowadays? Mohamed Boudhen in his article “What is the secret of French dominance in Morocco” states that What happened in 1912 was not just colonization and protectorate of Morocco, but it was the beginning of the birth of a new country in this world, which is the new Arabic country, French had created”. The description of this new Arabic country are as follows: Always according to Boudhan "Morocco": they gave it a new name which is “Maghreb” instead of “Marrakech” and gave it a new identity which is Arabic instead of Amazigh in addition to transferring its capital from Fes to Rabat….
Maybe that’s why Morocco can’t dispose from the French language even after nearly 65 years of independence; because Morocco is the daughter of France from its childhood and French language is its mother tongue as anyone can not dispose of his mother tongue and prefer it on other languages. The same here as Morocco, even it opens in other languages like English, Spanish, German and suggests to teach them in schools, French is still the super language in Morocco.